Cultural
Statistics Yearbook

Introduction. Anuario de estadísticas culturales 2010 [2010 Yearbook of Cultural Statistics]

Cover of the  Anuario de estadísticas culturales 2010 [2010 Yearbook of Cultural Statistics]

The Statistics Division of the General Technical Secretariat of the Ministry has created the publication Anuario de estadísticas culturales 2010 [2010 Yearbook of Cultural Statistics] in order to continue the project begun in 20051. It provides a selection of the most significant statistical results in the sphere of culture from the various available sources of statistics. This fourth edition is intended to provide a tool to facilitate greater knowledge of the situation in this industry and the tracking of its evolution.

A description is given below of the guidelines which, as in previous editions, were taken into account in the creation of this Yearbook, its reference period, the cultural sphere in which it was created and a brief description of its contents. It should be highlighted that the wide variety of sources and procedures used means that careful reading is required of the methodological notes in each chapter in order to be able to interpret the results correctly.

Regarding the sources of information, the study concentrates on obtaining indicators from statistical operations included in the National Statistics Plan, incorporating information from over twenty sources with these characteristics. Exceptionally, when made necessary by very new or unpublished information, other sources have been used.

The results shown are not simply a compilation of available, published data for the cultural sphere. On one hand, specific uses are made of statistical operations where the published breakdown is not enough to relate them to the cultural sphere, as is the case of information offered in the chapters on cultural employment, spending on cultural consumption by households or cultural tourism. On the other, certain statistical operations are published through this yearbook, such as those shown in chapters 3 and 15, Funding and Public Spending in Culture and Statistics for Music Publishing in Spain with ISMN number. Finally, most chapters incorporate, as well as the most significant results, indicators drawn up to facilitate the evaluation of the phenomenon in a more general context.

For the reference period of the information, the main indicators are offered for 2003-2007, with the most detailed breakdowns concentrated in the most recent years for which data is available. This parameter, applied generally, presents variants arising from the availability and reference periods of the statistics sources themselves. In any case, both the information gathered in this edition and the annual series of data available can be consulted in the statistical database Culturabase, accessible online.

Wherever possible indicators have been incorporated by sex and by Autonomous Community, classification variables which are considered to be priorities.

The delimitation of the sectorial sphere considered as a starting point takes into account the methodological work performed in the European Union (EU) since 1997, in which Spain was an active participant. One of the main objectives of this work was to define a shared cultural sphere, insofar as is possible, for all European countries.

This European framework has been taken as a reference basis for delimiting the cultural sectors to be included, establishing some differences in respect thereto, mainly concerning the sectors where a general consensus does not exist among countries regarding their inclusion.

Thus, with the individual characteristics mentioned in the methodological notes for each chapter, information has been considered from the following sectors relating to the cultural sphere:

  • Cultural Assets
    • Heritage
    • Museums
    • Archives
    • Libraries
  • Books and periodicals
    • Books
    • Periodicals
  • Plastic arts
  • Stage and musical arts
    • Theatre
    • Dance
    • Lyric
    • Music
  • Audiovisuals
    • Film
    • Video
    • Recorded music
    • Television
    • Radio

The field of study excludes Architecture and some shows (Circus, Puppets, Bullfighting, etc.) and some related aspects of culture, such as Language, Advertising, Sports and games, Environment and nature and Computing.

In relation to the Architecture sector, the subject of a wide-ranging debate in the EU workgroup, the part included in the European cultural framework was restricted to the creative work of architects. While Computing is not considered as a sector in this publication, indicators are incorporated relating both to the cultural consumption of households in computerised material and online, and to habits in the use of new technologies. In relation to the audiovisual sectors, indicators relating to radio and television are incorporated in some chapters, on the one hand as means of promoting culture, offering indicators relating to equipment, habits and consumption, and on the other, as a consequence of the difficult line which sometimes divides aspects such as the production industries working in film and, often simultaneously, in television. However, we have opted to exclude the study of television in some chapters, such as Funding and public spending in Culture.

Unlike the EU framework, we have included reproduction activities connected to cultural products (graphic art, reproduction of sound recordings, etc.…) and musical instrument making. Regarding administration activity, this function is included in the measurement of public funding of culture.

The lists drawn up and official classifications considered were as follows: List of cultural activities, based on the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE 93); List of cultural professions, based on the National Classification of Occupations (CNO 94); List of cultural goods and services in the home, based on the Classification of goods and services (COICOP/HBS); List of cultural assets/products in foreign trade based on the Combined Nomenclature of the Intrastat System; List of cultural teaching activities, based on Teaching activities forming the educational and vocational training system.

As for the structure of this Yearbook, it first offers an overview through a series of graphs showing important information from each chapter. The core of the publication is a set of statistics tables distributed over 16 chapters. Each one includes a section on the main methodological aspects, with a description of objectives, sources used and main technical characteristics which need to be known in order to correctly evaluate the results presented. The publication's chapters are grouped in two large blocks, statistical results affecting different cultural sectors, and more specific information available for some of them.

Specifically, for the information in the first block, its content begins with the study of cultural employment and cultural companies in the first two chapters.Chapters 3 and 4 centre on funding, covering both public spending in this sphere and private spending by households on culture. They next give results relating to rights deriving from intellectual property. Chapter 6 incorporates indicators relating to foreign trade in cultural assets and the next is devoted to cultural tourism. Teaching activities relating to cultural professions also gets its own chapter. It concludes with the main indicators relating to the cultural habits and consumption of Spaniards, referring to the different sectors under study, obtained in the Encuesta de Hábitos y Prácticas Culturales en España [Survey of Cultural Habits and Practices in Spain] 2006-2007 carried out by this Ministry. The publication goes on to focus on specific information available for some of these sectors: heritage, museums, archives, libraries, books, stage arts, music, film and video.


[1]This work continued the excellent work of the publication Las cifras de la cultura en España. Estadísticas e indicadores.2002 [Cultural numbers in Spain. Statistics and indicators.2002], which, as well as giving an overview of the place of culture in Spanish society, established indicators and a methodology which have given the work lasting value. Before that work, in 1995, there had been a work gathering and organising existing data on culture in a statistical publication, Cultura en cifras [Culture in numbers], which was a milestone in understanding the situation of the Cultural Sector.(back)


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